Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north, Afghanistan to the southeast, and Iran to the south. The country occupies an area of approximately 488,000 km2. The Karakum desert ("black sands") is one of the largest in the world and is surrounded, to the south, by the Kopet Dag range ("many mountains").
Located in a desert region, Turkmenistan has a climate characterized by temperatures that hardly fall below 35°C in summer, with peaks of 50°C in the south-eastern area of the Karakum desert, and by temperatures between -7° C and 15°C in winter. In Ashgabat, temperatures almost never drop below zero.
Turkmenistan's economy is driven by agriculture. The main crop is cotton, of which Turkmenistan is the tenth world producer, followed by fruit and grapes.
In November 2019, the Memorandum of Understandung was signed between Italy and the Republic of Turkmenistan, which aims to strengthen and coordinate actions to combat climate change and address its negative effects.
Memorandum of Understanding (Rome, November 2019- November 2024)
Counterpart: Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan
- Implementation, monitoring, information and reporting of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs);
- Reduction of deforestation and forest degradation, sustainable management of forests, valorization of forest carbon stocks and recycling of forest waste for the creation of energy;
- Capacity building for the implementation of mechanisms under the UNFCCC and related instruments;
- Protection of biodiversity and sustainable use of natural resources;
- Stimulation and dissemination of economic and technological transformation towards a low-carbon economy and the Green Economy;
- Promotion and development of the use of renewable energies;
- Adaptation to climate change;
- Educational and awareness-raising campaigns on climate change mitigation and adaptation;
- Monitoring of air quality;
- Integrated management of the environment of maritime and coastal areas;
- Sustainable waste management;
- Sustainable land management.